'Interpreting technical evidence from spectral imaging of paintings by Édouard Manet in the Courtauld Gallery'

S. R. Amato, Aviva Burnstock, Maureen Cross, K. Janssens, F. Rosi, L. Cartechini, R. Fontana, A. D. Fovo, M. Paolantoni, C. Grazia, A. Romani, A. Michelin, C. Andraud, A. Tournié, J. Dik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The paintings by Édouard Manet in The Courtauld Gallery Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863–68), Marguerite de Conflans en Toilette de Bal (1870–1880), Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874), and A Bar at the Folies–Bergère (1882) were investigated for the first time using a range of non-invasive in situ analyses.

The aims of the study were to investigate the painting techniques and materials used for this group of works and to critically evaluate the technical evidence derived from the integrated use of imaging techniques and portable spectroscopic methods in this context.

The paintings were investigated by means of macro X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF), reflection spectral imaging, portable UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, portable Raman spectroscopy, and reflection FTIR. MA-XRF and reflection spectral imaging allowed visualising elements in the compositions that were not visible using traditional methods of technical study. For example, MA-XRF analysis of Déjeuner sur l'herbe revealed elements of the development of the composition that provided new evidence to consider its relationship to other versions of the composition. The study also highlighted questions about the interpretation of elemental distribution maps and spectral images that did not correspond to the reworking visible in X-radiographs. For example, in A Bar at the Folies–Bergère Manet made numerous changes during painting, which were not clearly visualised with any of the techniques used.

The research has wider implications for the study of Impressionist paintings, as the results will support technical studies of works by other artists of the period who used similar materials and painting methods.
Original languageEnglish
JournalX-Ray Spectrometry
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 23 2018

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Painting
Imaging techniques
Macros
Fluorescence
X rays
Chemical analysis
Raman spectroscopy
Spectroscopy

Cite this

'Interpreting technical evidence from spectral imaging of paintings by Édouard Manet in the Courtauld Gallery'. / Amato, S. R. ; Burnstock, Aviva; Cross, Maureen ; Janssens, K.; Rosi, F.; Cartechini, L. ; Fontana, R.; Fovo, A. D.; Paolantoni, M.; Grazia, C.; Romani, A.; Michelin, A.; Andraud, C.; Tournié, A.; Dik, J.

In: X-Ray Spectrometry, 23.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Amato, SR, Burnstock, A, Cross, M, Janssens, K, Rosi, F, Cartechini, L, Fontana, R, Fovo, AD, Paolantoni, M, Grazia, C, Romani, A, Michelin, A, Andraud, C, Tournié, A & Dik, J 2018, ''Interpreting technical evidence from spectral imaging of paintings by Édouard Manet in the Courtauld Gallery'', X-Ray Spectrometry. https://doi.org/10.1002/xrs.2828
Amato, S. R. ; Burnstock, Aviva ; Cross, Maureen ; Janssens, K. ; Rosi, F. ; Cartechini, L. ; Fontana, R. ; Fovo, A. D. ; Paolantoni, M. ; Grazia, C. ; Romani, A. ; Michelin, A. ; Andraud, C. ; Tournié, A. ; Dik, J. / 'Interpreting technical evidence from spectral imaging of paintings by Édouard Manet in the Courtauld Gallery'. In: X-Ray Spectrometry. 2018.
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abstract = "The paintings by {\'E}douard Manet in The Courtauld Gallery D{\'e}jeuner sur l'herbe (1863–68), Marguerite de Conflans en Toilette de Bal (1870–1880), Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874), and A Bar at the Folies–Berg{\`e}re (1882) were investigated for the first time using a range of non-invasive in situ analyses.The aims of the study were to investigate the painting techniques and materials used for this group of works and to critically evaluate the technical evidence derived from the integrated use of imaging techniques and portable spectroscopic methods in this context.The paintings were investigated by means of macro X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF), reflection spectral imaging, portable UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, portable Raman spectroscopy, and reflection FTIR. MA-XRF and reflection spectral imaging allowed visualising elements in the compositions that were not visible using traditional methods of technical study. For example, MA-XRF analysis of D{\'e}jeuner sur l'herbe revealed elements of the development of the composition that provided new evidence to consider its relationship to other versions of the composition. The study also highlighted questions about the interpretation of elemental distribution maps and spectral images that did not correspond to the reworking visible in X-radiographs. For example, in A Bar at the Folies–Berg{\`e}re Manet made numerous changes during painting, which were not clearly visualised with any of the techniques used.The research has wider implications for the study of Impressionist paintings, as the results will support technical studies of works by other artists of the period who used similar materials and painting methods.",
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AU - Cross, Maureen

AU - Janssens, K.

AU - Rosi, F.

AU - Cartechini, L.

AU - Fontana, R.

AU - Fovo, A. D.

AU - Paolantoni, M.

AU - Grazia, C.

AU - Romani, A.

AU - Michelin, A.

AU - Andraud, C.

AU - Tournié, A.

AU - Dik, J.

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AB - The paintings by Édouard Manet in The Courtauld Gallery Déjeuner sur l'herbe (1863–68), Marguerite de Conflans en Toilette de Bal (1870–1880), Banks of the Seine at Argenteuil (1874), and A Bar at the Folies–Bergère (1882) were investigated for the first time using a range of non-invasive in situ analyses.The aims of the study were to investigate the painting techniques and materials used for this group of works and to critically evaluate the technical evidence derived from the integrated use of imaging techniques and portable spectroscopic methods in this context.The paintings were investigated by means of macro X-ray fluorescence (MA-XRF), reflection spectral imaging, portable UV–Vis–NIR spectroscopy, portable Raman spectroscopy, and reflection FTIR. MA-XRF and reflection spectral imaging allowed visualising elements in the compositions that were not visible using traditional methods of technical study. For example, MA-XRF analysis of Déjeuner sur l'herbe revealed elements of the development of the composition that provided new evidence to consider its relationship to other versions of the composition. The study also highlighted questions about the interpretation of elemental distribution maps and spectral images that did not correspond to the reworking visible in X-radiographs. For example, in A Bar at the Folies–Bergère Manet made numerous changes during painting, which were not clearly visualised with any of the techniques used.The research has wider implications for the study of Impressionist paintings, as the results will support technical studies of works by other artists of the period who used similar materials and painting methods.

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